Technologies in medicine at the dawn of the next century

Introductory part
The idea to take part in the competition and choose a topic related to scientific and technical breakthroughs in medicine is connected with the growing relevance of the covered issue. Modern discoveries are significant and interesting. At the same time, there remains a lot of intuitive, but unexplored.
Currently, the development of medicine provides ample opportunities. Scientific developments have made it possible to take a step forward, which is largely due to the creation and introduction of new technologies. It seems to me that the role of modern medicine is to treat patients using sophisticated and more accurate diagnostic systems. The contribution to the development of medicine today depends not only on doctors, but also on mathematicians, engineers, programmers, developers of prostheses and implants.
Another factor that determined the choice of the topic is the high level of interest in medical issues in the world. I am studying in the direction of "International Relations" and I believe that the attention of the world community to the development of technology is not accidental. The level of its involvement in the country's economy depends on the well-being and health of the population, which, in turn, is important for the prosperity and stability of the state, its ability to ensure internal and external security. As a future international specialist, I hope that numerous scientific discoveries will be regulated both at the state and international levels, that the field of medicine will unite scientific communities and become a place of productive and generally significant activity.
I hope that my work will interest the reader, since the issue of maintaining health is relevant for everyone.
In this work, I will reflect on the future of medicine. I think everyone has ever imagined medical technologies that they would like to use in real life. The achievements of modern medicine seem incredible, and it is difficult to imagine what heights researchers will reach by the beginning of the next century. Science does not stand still, and this century will amaze contemporaries with new discoveries that could hardly have been dreamed of even in the last decade. Fantasies are inextricably linked with our knowledge of the present, and today, in 2022, we hope that at the turn of 2100, technologies will become much higher and more accessible.
I would like to present the main part of my work in the form of a welcome speech by the head of the Institute of Neurobiology, Nanotechnology and Artificial Intelligence, one of the divisions of the Medical Research Center of the Future. This is how I see the further development of medicine, and I would like even the most improbable to be implemented by 2100.

The main part
Good afternoon, dear colleagues! Today we are gathered here in our Medical Research Center to celebrate the advent of the new year and the new century. Humanity has entered the year 2100, and I believe that science is waiting for a lot of wonderful and useful discoveries. The last century is a perfect example of this. Outstanding achievements have been made in genetic engineering, nanotechnology, embryology, microbiology and a number of other fields. I would especially like to note that even in the XXI century, artificial intelligence technologies and their application in medicine occupied a special place in science. For 80 years, humanity has made a fantastic breakthrough in this area, and even now, when new developments and practices have become a reality, it is difficult to realize that we have managed to realize the most incredible dreams of the recent past. Therefore, it is a great honor for me to present the achievements of the Institute of Neuroscience, Nanotechnology and Artificial Intelligence at this meeting.

A little history. At the beginning of the XXI century, the BrainGate technology, a system of brain implants, was under development and clinical trials. Its purpose was to help those who had lost control of their limbs or other body functions. BrainGate consists of a sensor implanted in the brain and an external decoding device that connects to some kind of prosthesis or other external object. The sensor is made in the form of an array of microelectrodes, as thick as a hair, which pick up electromagnetic signals from neurons that are activated in certain areas of the brain, for example, those responsible for motor functions. The information from the sensors converts brain activity into electrical signals, is transmitted to the decoder and processed into commands to control an external device, for example, a prosthetic arm, a computer cursor, a wheelchair. That is, with the help of BrainGate, a person can control objects using brain commands.
Back in the first quarter of the XXI century, it was recognized that the brain-computer interface is one of the most promising technologies in the treatment of neurological diseases and injuries. It made it possible to establish a connection between intact areas of the brain and auxiliary devices that are able to compensate for motor and sensory functions, thereby giving a person the opportunity to control a computer and other technical devices using brain signals, bypassing the transmission of information through nerves and muscles.
80 years have passed, and the technology has changed qualitatively: the prosthesis has become a part of the human body, no different from the natural one. If then the prosthesis was controlled by signals from the brain, today the prosthetic elements are connected to the body. Between the working nerve endings and the wires in the prosthesis, we have created "adapters" through which a nervous electrical signal causes the prosthesis to move, for example, to squeeze the brush to pick up an object. In an effort to make the work of the entire system as similar as possible to conducting a signal with the muscles of a healthy arm, we have developed special synthetic tissues and vessels that can be "soldered" with natural ones, since they do not cause rejection of the body. Our scientists are also considering ways to introduce the practice of growing such vessels and tissues from human biomaterial with their subsequent implantation into a prosthesis, however, this development will require us not only higher technologies, but also legal regulation of the collection and use of human biomaterial. The laws adopted more than half a century ago reflected only the fundamentals of state policy in the field of chemical and biological safety, conducting clinical trials of medicines. Now the procedure for genomic registration has been improved, genetic certification of the population has been introduced everywhere, the issues of donation and transplantation of living and artificial organs in international and national law have been legally regulated.
Our goal for the near future is to create a bioprosthesis with which a person can feel surfaces, as natural organs do.
To "glue" vessels, tissues and, hopefully, organs soon, we use nanoparticles that penetrate to the junction and are tightly layered, carrying out a movable and flexible bond that will not wear out and will not break. At the same time, we still face an unsolved problem: the prosthesis must have the ability to regenerate and self-heal. Perhaps we will be able to create and insert artificially grown vessels into the prosthesis, through which blood will flow, but this will require even more breakthrough technologies, because these vessels must be surrounded by "living" tissues.
In this regard, in the last century, the department responsible for the development of nanomedicine joined our Institute. Our colleagues have recently invented a nanopistol with which you can shoot at the affected areas and heal them, regardless of whether it is a living tissue or artificially grown and does not initially have the ability to "tighten". In addition, developing the ideas of the XXI century, we use the streams of these nanoparticles as an analgesic and local anesthesia during operations. One of the most serious breakthroughs is the ability to heal bones and joints with nanoparticles. At the moment, the recovery process requires a course of treatment with nanowires. As before, the damaged area should be at rest for some time, which once involved a long-term application of plaster and a fixing bandage on the whole organ (for example, an arm). Today we have managed to accelerate the process of successful bone tissue healing, as nanoparticles contribute to the natural "bonding" and themselves serve as a building material. Our technologies have already found wide application in sports and treatment of people with serious injuries (for example, spine), which facilitates the rehabilitation process and returns people to a full life.
Nanoparticles today are carriers of useful substances. At home, according to doctors' prescriptions, people have the opportunity to independently "shoot" the drug into a certain part of the body, where it is immediately absorbed into the blood. Special sensors sewn under the skin from birth show the content of substances in the body; therefore, there is no need for painful intravenous injection or biomaterial sampling. Similarly, with the help of a stream of nanoparticles, we have learned to "excite" the hair follicles on the head and accelerate the process of hair growth.
Another way to use them is to introduce them into human vessels in case of plaques and congestion. Nanoparticles dissolve these barriers and restore normal blood flow.
Thus, nanoparticles have already been successfully used in many fields. Despite the fact that it was possible to create special species that do not cause allergic reactions and mutations, it is necessary to continue studying nanoparticles and expand the number of such useful elements.

The rapid development of microelectronics in the XXI century made it possible to embed information transmitting elements in implants. In English, such devices are called Internet of Bodies (IoB), in Russian they are known as "Internet of bodies". Some inventions from this field are familiar even to our grandparents: chips that control blood sugar, pacemakers.

Our Institute has been complicating this technology for several decades. Today, with the assistance of neurologists, neuroscientists, neurosurgeons, engineers, mathematicians, programmers, we have managed to create new opportunities for the use of "smart tablets". Back in 2017, the first digital drug was approved - a tablet with a sensor that allowed tracking when a patient took it. The sensor built into the drug was activated by the action of gastric juice. The data was transferred to a special digital patch on the patient's body, and then to a mobile application. Today, this technology has improved the principle of gastroenterological research and treatment. Our scientists have inserted a video camera into the "smart tablet". Now a digital device equipped with a probe and controlled by a doctor's joystick can pass through the entire gastrointestinal tract (gastrointestinal tract) and conduct a complete diagnosis with the transmission of information in real time. If necessary, you can activate the "tablet", and it will apply the medicine to the affected area in the gastrointestinal tract. Thus, from performing a simple function of tracking medication intake, "smart pills" have moved into the category of complex diagnostic equipment.
Today, there is a technology for studying the vessels of the brain from the inside using a small digital device that moves through the vessels and transmits an image to a computer screen. The new method has greater accuracy than ultrasound, for which some vessels were inaccessible.
"Smart tablets" and sensors that examine blood vessels work in conjunction with a computer. As soon as the digital device transmits a video image and records the pathology, the medical system analyzes the symptoms, finds treatment options in the database and offers a list of additional examinations to clarify the diagnosis.
Our Institute produces pacemakers from human biomaterial. This device helped people with cardiovascular diseases in the last century and has not lost its significance today. The pacemaker of the last generation developed its resource quickly enough, and the implantation of an artificial device could lead to inflammation of soft tissues in the implantation area. That is why we have developed a new type of device that will be "implanted" in the body and will not be felt by the patient.

I will turn to neuroscience again. Back in the XXI century, it was considered promising, and many international corporations developed their own neural interfaces. For example, Nissan has introduced similar technologies to improve the handling and safety of the car on the road. Even today, the brain-car technology helps to better respond to changes in the situation by predicting the reaction and actions of the driver. Social networks were not far behind: Facebook developed a technology that made it possible to type without using a keyboard. Today, everyone can "dictate" a message in their thoughts, and an implanted chip can receive a signal and convert it into text. After all, that's how we communicate now, when we can't call or type. And these are not our only possibilities: if we imagine any image or object, the chip will find the most similar picture among the millions that exist on the global Internet.

At the same time, our Institute is aware of the potential dangers of the development of new technologies. If already in the last century society was concerned about the risks of hacking and theft of confidential information, today this problem is only becoming more acute. In this regard, we not only make discoveries, but also offer ways to legally consolidate the use of new technologies so that they benefit, not harm. For example, IoB devices are widely used in the non-medical field, so we cooperate with IT specialists to reduce the risks of cyber attacks and identity theft, including thoughts.
In the last century, neuroscience, although it is closely related to human genetic data, was not mentioned separately in international law. Today, it has been possible to expand the recognition of neurotechnology: issues related to brain-computer interfaces are submitted for international discussion within the framework of a separately created body – the International Commission on New Medical Technologies. Its work involves not only representatives of the authorities and the scientific community, but also private companies and novice researchers. Realizing the importance of cooperation in the research and application of technologies, our scientists cooperate with the Department of International Relations and Communications in the structure of the Medical Research Center.

Our Institute has ambitious goals. To implement technologies as quickly as possible, scientists themselves take part in experiments. Without the achievements of the past, the breakthroughs of modernity would not be possible. We hope that the discoveries today will become the basis of the achievements of our young colleagues.
Happy holidays!

The final part
Summing up the work, I hope that the assumptions I have made will be realized, since the basis laid down by modern science allows us to make truly fantastic breakthroughs.
I would like every research center to be able to declare its achievements and tell about ongoing experiments and research. The idea of promoting science should be popular among the population, and scientific achievements should become the property and the pride of the country. Any field of science is valuable, as it provides a multifaceted development of humanity, allows us to more accurately explain what is happening around and inside us. I am sure that in the field of new medical technologies it is necessary to cooperate with different countries and institutions, combine technologies and regulate their use.