Автор: Нурай Нурходжаева
At the present stage of civilization development, more than ever, acute questions arose, without the solution of which it is impossible to continue the forward movement of mankind along the path of economic progress. Despite the fact that the economy is only part of human activity, it strongly affects the problems of security and peace, the natural and human environment, as well as moral, religious, and philosophical values.
Following the development of human society's satisfaction with its energy needs are gaining great value. In heating apartments, bringing transport in motion, production power supply industrial facilities, and other urgent needs the oil sector plays an important role. Consequently, the development of the its industry allowed, during the post-industrial revolution, to form new economic relations, quickly realize production, as well as receive income for countries, accounting for the sale of oil. But at the moment the situation has changed radically.
The development of the oil sector, the satisfaction of domestic needs for oil and oil products in the country, leads to a sharp reduction in costs. The presence of domestic production of petroleum products in the volume necessary for the bulk of economic spheres, also it protects that areas from external influences. The discovery of new oil fields accelerated the transformation of these countries from oil-importing into oil-exporting, making it possible to reduce the costs of satisfying domestic needs, also increasing revenues from exporting the remaining oil reserves. However, now the situation has radically changed. Firstly, during lockdown, countries, where the oil industry is the main economic driving factor, are witnessing oil price crashes. Secondly, oil cannot be produced forever. Thus, we must use it rationally, not wasting it on unnecessary things. Moreover, it causes a lot of contamination in all its stages from extraction to usage. Having started the exploitation of oil and gas fields, a person did not think about the consequences of the intensive extraction of these natural resources.
-states having large oil reserves use it as means of political influence. Largest corporations based on the interests of states affect political processes in the countries where they work and this influence sometimes reaches the state coup. Wars erupting in the fight for law possession of large energy sources, have a significant impact on what is happening in the world both global economic and political events
- The great danger lies in the use of oil and gas as fuel. When these products are burned in the atmosphere, large amounts of carbon dioxide, various sulfur compounds, nitric oxide, etc. are released. A decrease in the amount of oxygen and an increase in carbon dioxide content, in turn, will affect climate change. Carbon dioxide molecules allow solar short-wave radiation to penetrate the Earth’s atmosphere and delay the infrared radiation emitted by the earth’s surface.
- A liter of oil deprives oxygen of 40 thousand liters of seawater. When its concentration in seawater in an amount of 0.1-0.001 ml / l fish eggs die in a few days. On 1 ha of the sea surface, more than 100 million fish larvae can die if there is an oil film. There are many sources of oil in waterbodies. These are accidents of tankers and drilling platforms, discharge of ballast, and sewage water, bringing polluting components by rivers.
-Strengthening the national currency through income from the sale of oil, while growing the purchasing power of the population, increases their interest in more luxurious products, which has a negative impact on the sale of local products and reduces demand for it.
- Almost all countries spend millions of dollars to struggle with environmental problems. Nonetheless, if they reduce oil extraction for energy and plastic production, the expenses on contamination problems will decrease on 50%.
The use of oil and petroleum products should be very accurate, thoughtful and metered. Oil requires attention. This must be remembered not only by the oil industry but by everyone. I believe that, if humanity decreases the usage of petroleum for fuel and plastic manufacture or even eradicates it, this will help not only to stop the main environmental problems but also to insure the state's economy, since it will be developed in other spheres.
What oil (petroleum) can be replaced with in a forthcoming future.
1)Man can be a power station. Thermal energy or kinetic energy of movement, produced by a person in everyday conditions will be used. It will accumulate in the built-in chips in the human body. The chips must be made of a lithium-ion polymer battery since it is light in weight and can be made in any shape. Moreover, it has a high energy density per unit mass; low self-discharge;
the thickness of the elements from 1 mm, all this makes it the most suitable for the human body. An opportunity to receive very flexible forms; mild memory effect; slight voltage drop as the discharge are the strong points too. However, there is a weak point that batteries are fire hazards if overcharged or overheated. To combat this phenomenon, all the chips will be covered with a mat of superthin basalt fibers, laminated on one or more sides with aluminum foil, polyethylene reinforced aluminum foil, or insulating fabric made of glass multifilament yarns.
2)One lightning strike contains about 5 billion joules of energy. This charge is enough for the continuous operation of a private house for a month. The energy of a large thunderstorm is equal to the energy from an atomic bomb explosion. To “consume” lightning, their energy clearly needs to be stored somewhere. I propose to arrange around the certain territory, depending on the size, from 16 to 64 devices that, during a thunderstorm, lightning or hail, all together form a dome over the city, which will collect all the energy in thousandths of a second, which lasts the main phase of the discharge.After receiving the charge, energy can quickly spread to these devices, and they will quickly transfer it to the connected underground batteries made of a mixture of lithium ions, a hydrogen metal hydride electrode (usually nickel-lanthanum or nickel-lithium hydride) and potassium hydroxide. These components will allow the accumulator not to take up much space underground and easily transfer energy. A lightning strike, which seems instantaneous, actually consists of several phases during which you can collect energy and then slowly transfer it to the network, simultaneously converting to standard 220 volts and 50 or 60 hertz ac.
When plastic manufacturing stops, humanity will have enough of its reserves for a long time. Just recycling will reduce its need. As the price for it rises, people will cleanse the ocean from plastic for manufacturing it for their own profit. Thus, reducing oil extraction will not greatly effect on human daily life convenience, but will decrease the level of contamination and death rate of marine animals.
My proposed ideas at the beginning are very costly, but over time they will pay off. Initial investments will come out cheaper than further black gold production within 5 years. Moreover, the probability of unexpected accidents or breakdowns is 5%, while in the oil industry it is 9%. This also influence on cost.
In conclusion, I want to say that no matter what is the source of oil pollution, the harm from it is enormous. Environmental problems of oil refining, as well as oil production and transportation of raw materials and finished products, are now relevant as never before. Therefore, at present, it is necessary to pay maximum attention to the development and implementation of environmentally friendly mining and processing technologies, as well as the use of the most effective means of protecting our environment. The temptation to make money on oil is great - states trade and get extra income it is like a drug, getting us out from real to illusion world.